Titolo:Focus on gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR): new pragmatic insights in clinical practice
Pubblicato su: Journal of Biological Regulators & Homeostatic Agents Volume 32, No (S2), January-February, 2018
Autori: M. Gelardi and G. Ciprandi.
Abstract:Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a common disease usually limited to the oesophagus. Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is an inflammatory reaction of the mucosa of pharynx, larynx, and other associated upper respiratory organs, caused by a reflux of stomach contents outside the oesophagus. LPR is considered to be a relatively new clinical entity with a vast number of clinical manifestations which are treated sometimes empirically and without a correct diagnosis. However, there is disagreement between specialists about its definition and management: gastroenterologists consider LPR to be a substantially rare manifestation of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), whereas otolaryngologists believe that LPR is an independent, but common in their practice, disorder. Patients suffering from LPR firstly consult their general practitioners, but a multidisciplinary approach may be fruitful to define a unified strategy based on specific medications and behavioural changes. The present Supplement would review the topic, considering LPR and GER characteristics, pathophysiology, diagnostic work-up, and new therapeutic strategies also comparing different specialist points of view and patient populations. In particular, new insights derive from an interesting gel compound, containing magnesium alginate and E-Gastryal® (hyaluronic acid, hydrolysed keratin, Tara gum, and Xantana gum). In particular, two very large Italian surveys were conducted in real-world setting, such as outpatient clinics. The most relevant outcomes are presented and discussed in the current Issue. Actually, laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is considered an extraesophageal manifestation of the gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Both GERD and its extraesophageal manifestation are very common in clinical practice. Both disorders have a relevant burden for the society: about this topic most of pharmaco-economic studies were conducted in the United States. In population-based studies, 19.8% of North Americans complain of typical symptoms of GERD (heartburn and regurgitation) at least weekly (1). Also in the late 1990s, GERD accounted for $9.3 to $12.1 billion in direct annual healthcare costs in the United States, higher than any other digestive disease. As a result, acid-suppressive agents were the leading pharmaceutical expenditure in the United States. The prevalence of GERD in the primary care setting becomes even more evident when one considers that, in the United States, 4.6 million office encounters annually are primarily for GERD, whereas 9.1 million encounters include GERD in the top 3 diagnoses for the encounter. GERD is also the most frequently first-listed gastrointestinal diagnosis in ambulatory care visits (2, 3) Extraesophageal manifestations of reflux, including LPR, asthma, and chronic cough, have been estimated to cost $5438 per patient in direct medical expenses in the first year after presentation and $13,700 for 5 years.